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CALIFORNIA REDWOOD 




The Redwoods were born with 



K 



the Christian Saviour 

EDWOOD is lumber from the "big trees" of California— the Eighth 
Wonder of the World. Scientists call them Sequoia sempervirens, 
which, when translated into our every-day tongue, means "Sequoia 

_ ever-living." Sequoia is an Indian name; the name of a chief of 

great power and influence among his people. It was natural, therefore, for 
the Indians to name the giant trees after their most powerful chief. 

They are wonderful trees. Their living power is without peer among per- 
ishable plant and animal life. The secret of their great age is resistance to rot 
and fire, and practical immunity to the attack of insect life and fungus 
growth so destructive to most other kinds of wood. In the forests, the Red- 
woods have fought decay and fire down the sweep of many centuries — they 
lived on sturdy and strong while other forest trees matured and died in suc- 
cessive crops. 

The Redwoods are the oldest living things in the world ! Many were sturdy 
saplings 2000 years ago when the Three Wise Men of the East followed the 
Star of Bethlehem to the manger wherein the Christian Saviour lay. 

By a freak of nature the Redwoods grow nowhere else in the world but in 
California. Their range is confined to a strip along the Pacific Coast north of 
San Francisco Bay to the Oregon State line, and extending inland not more 
than 10 to 20 miles. The principal stand of commercial lumber today is in the 
three north coast counties of Mendocino, Humboldt and Del Norte. Their 
growth ranges from the sea level to an altitude of 2500 feet. 

The Redwoods grow in what is known as the "fog belt," and thrive only 
in excessive moisture. There are millions of trees, and estimated by the 
Government to contain between 50,000,000,000 and 60,000,000,000 board 
measure feet of lumber — more than enough to keep all the saw-mills now cut- 
ting Redwood busy day and night for 100 years. The Redwoods grow big and 
dense, yielding on the average from 75,000 to 100.000 board feet of commer- 
cial lumber per acre. There are quite a number of instances where the Red- 
woods grow so dense and so big that a single acre has yielded more than 
1,000,000 board feet of lumber. 



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The Redwood forest is one of the sublimities of nature. The massive trees, 
with their straight trunks covered with cinnamon-colored bark and fluted 
from the base to the apex of the tree like a Corinthian column, are as impres- 
sive as the cold, silent walls of an ancient cathedral. They grow from 5 to 25 
feet in diameter, and from 75 to 300 feet in height. The great size and height 
of these trees can best be appreciated when it is known that, if hollowed out, 
one of the large Redwoods would make an elevator shaft for the famous Flat- 
iron Building in New York ; in height it would tower 50 feet above the torch 
of the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor! They are so large that a single 
tree has produced enough lumber to build a church at Santa Rosa, California, 

that will seat 500 people. 

The enormous logs make it necessary to use the most powerful and ex- 
pensive logging machinery. Many of the large logs must be split with gun- 
powder l»e fore they can be handled on the saw carriage at the mill. It is not 
uncommon for a butt log ( the first cut above the ground) to weigh from 30 
to 50 tons, according to the diameter of the tree. The butt cut is usually 16 
feet in length. 

( )ne of the strange things about the Redwoods is the root formation, which 
is slight in comparison with the size of the tree. Redwood actually has an in- 
secure footing. There is no tap root to push straight down into the earth to 
give the tree stability. The roots radiate a few feet below the surface of the 
soil. It is supposed they protect themselves by dense growth. The floor of the 
forest i^ covered with a luxuriant growth of magnificent ferns and beautiful 

rhododendrons. 

The Sequoia gigantea, or Sequoia ivashingtonia, as the United States For- 
est Service refer to them, are the "big trees*' of the tourist. They are first 
cousins of the Redwoods. Geologists a^ert that they are the lone living sur- 
vivors of all plant and animal life that existed before the glacial age. The few 
remaining ti are confined to an area of about 50 square miles on the west- 
ern slope of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, in central California, and of which 
the Yosemite \ alley is a part. Many of these trees are 4000 years of age 
and some bold scientists have estimated one to be from 8000 to 10,000 years 
old ! They are located in an altitude of from 4000 to 7000 feet above sea- 
level, and bear evidence of having passed maturity and are in their decline. If 
the decline lasts proportionately as long as it took the trees to reach maturity, 
the) are still Id for untold centuries. These "big trees" are found only in 
protected va \s and s] ts in the mountains, indicating the cause of their 
sur\ival of the glacial upheaval. The "Grizzly Giant" in Mariposa Grove, Yo- 
mite Park, is 01 feet in circumference at the ground, and its first branch, 
which is 125 feet from the ground, is 20 feet in circumference. The "General 
Sherman'" is 280 feet high. 103 feet cij imference at the ground, which 
means a diameter of 3614 I t. and at a point 100 feet from the ground it is 
177 feet in diameter. These are two of the most noted of the "big trees 

The "big trees" of I alifomia afford an inexhaustible reservoir of in- 
formation for the ntist who reads this story of the past by the study of 
the annular ring growth. By means of this he is r able o, determine the season 
and locate with a degree of definiteness climatic conditions and changes on 
the Pacific Coast a- far back as 4000 vears ago! 



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. light, airy and most c! mi fig type of the Redivocd bungalow . >md especially 

suited to the large lot 

The California Bungalow 

TH.F bungalow is distinctly a California ideal. It is the architect's re- 
finement of the original settler's cabin. To be a real California 
bungalow it must be built, from mudsill to the shingle roof, of Cali- 
fornia Redwood. The California bungalow is the most charming, 
cozy, and comfortable form of home. As a type it is the cheapest to construct 
and affords the most convenient arrangement for the family. 

The bungalow is the type of home within reach of the ordinary purse, and 
it has been successfully transplanted to all parts of the country. If built of 
California Redwood it combines durability with fire resistance and makes 
possible unlimited combinations of artistic effects in the color scheme of its 
interior finish. 



The House Builder s Wood 

For home building Redwood is the 
most durable and serviceable mate- 
rial you can use. If Nature, when she 
created Redwood, had deliberately 
set out to most generously take ac- 
count of our present-day needs in 
house construction, as well as our 
artistic appetites, she could hardly 
have improved her work. She 
achieved a miracle in making an "all- 
purpose" wood so richly adaptable to 
not only the rough, but also to the 
more refined uses of lumber. She put 



into every Redwood tree a variety of 
grain, grade and texture probably 
not paralleled in any other species of 
wood. 

In California, where Redwood is 
so well known, architects and build- 
ers recommend and use it where long 
life, artistic finish and "no-worry ser- 
vice" is wanted. Redwood is an as- 
set in building. 

From mudsill to shingled roof 
Redwood is ideally adaptable for 
every purpose, except uncovered in- 
terior floors. 



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Redwood should be specified for: 

All Exterior Trim 

Balusters 

Ceiling 

Columns 

Doors and Windows 

Eaves 
Fencing 
Framing 

General Mill Work- 
Gutters 
Interior Trim 
Lath 
Lattice 
Moulding 
Mudsills 
Newels 
Panels 
Pickets 
Porch Flooring 

Rails 

Roofing hingles and shakes | 



Septic Tanks 

Siding 

Sheathing 

Studding 

Sub-flooring 



Redwood Best for Side Walls 

The side walls of a house are as im- 
portant as the roof or the foundation 
— they should be absolutely weather- 
proof, leak-proof, and impervious to 
dampness ; they should last without 
expense, without paint if necessary, 
and should not crack, scale or rot, at 
the same time being capable of at- 
tractive treatment from an architec- 
tural viewpoint. Redwood beveled, 
resawn and drop siding are used uni- 
versally for exterior covering in Cal- 
ifornia, and they are fast coming into 
popular favor in the east. 



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Redwood, is the most dependable 
wood for exterior trim. It is a gen- 
eral practice to use Redwood door 
and window frames in California. 
Where frames are made of other 
wood, Redwood is always used for 

- 

that portion that comes in contact 
with the weather, as well as that part 
covered when the frame is set into 
the building and which is likely to be 
reached by moisture or rain seeping 
behind the rasing. California houses 
built this way have no back rot. 

More Durable Than Plaster 

The plaster exterior has come to be 
a fad in many sections of the coun- 
try. Its white, pebbly surface is at- 
tractive to the eye, but many archi- 
tects doubt its lasting quality. This 
is particularly true in climates where 
there are extremes in temperature. A 
crack or scale on a plaster exterior 
mars its beauty, and the patch usual- 
ly leaves an unsightly streak or 
blotch. Redwood siding, or a shingle 
or shake siding, is a covering that 
givt-^ just as much artistic beauty as 
a plaster exterior. It can be stained 
or painted to any color, and adds to 
the value of your property because 



the exterior of your house looks just 
as uniformly attractive and is still as 
perfectly weatherproof 25 years after 
as it was the day it was built. 

In planning your home you 
intend to build for comfort and 
beauty, as well as creating a 
live and growing asset in the 
property itself. If you sacrifice 
permanence and durability for 
the sake of temporary fad you 
make a bad investment. Red- 
wood siding costs less than a 
plaster exterior, and it increases 
the value of your property. 

Wonderful Interior Finish 

The home — whether palatial or mod- 
est — when built of Redwood and fin- 
ished with Redwood panels and 
beamed ceilings bears the stamp of 
enduring individuality. Who would 
not feel a thrill to know that he is 
living under the protection of the 
wood of the "big trees" of Califor- 
nia — trees that began their earthly 
career coincident with the life of the 
Christian Saviour ! 

For interior finish, panels, mould- 
ing, etc., its adaptability meets every 




/ he roof lit of this Redwood bungai git e <: tOVt !i of the Orient 



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Strikingly simple <n .iesign and an inexpen Vote the beauty of tin nn A alow in its setting 

under the foliage of the Calif ornia Pepper Tree. The sidt dre Red a 

shakes and the roof Kcourood rhingles 



requirement perfectly. Redwood has 
an individuality all its own, and 
whether finished in the natural, or 
stained, it affords the architect the 
widest range of artistic possibilities 
as well as the greatest degree of sat- 
isfaction to the home lover. 

For panels the "slash grain" gives 
a modest but beautiful figure because 
the annular ring growth of Redwood 
is. as a general rule, a close growth. 
"Vertical grain" is recognized by the 
absence of figure, and finishes with a 
beautiful but subdued effect. A care- 
ful lection for a combination of 

ertical" and "slash grain" in pan- 
els or in trim is an ideal effect to be 
worked out by the architect or build- 
er from his own ideas of contrast. 

California Redwood has been used 
for years as interior trim for palatial 
homes both in California and in the 
East because of the exquisite effects 
attainable under the touch of the ar- 
tist. The absence of pitch and raised 



grain also makes it a splendid mate- 
rial for carving and other similar 
decorative effort. 

Waxed and finished in the natural. 
Redwood gives a rich, warm, invit- 
ing and never-tiring tone — Redwood 
makes you love your home. 

By use of stains especially pre- 
pared for Redwood it can be shaded 
to any color desired, lighter or dark- 
er than the natural wood, and with- 
out destroying the beauty of the grain 
or its remarkable individuality. Thi^ 
makes it possible to harmonize the 
color tone of the room with the dra 
pertes, carpets, and so forth. 

The California Redwood Associa- 
tion maintains a stain and paint ex- 
pert, and we will gladly send you 
samples showing the wonderful rang- 
of color possibilities that can be re- 
alized by the use of these stains. The 
stain is not sold. We give the for- 
mula and complete directions on the 
back of each individual sample. If 



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the color you want is not among our 

standard stains we will cheerfully 
provide the formula upon request, 
and without cost to you. Any intelli- 
gent painter, interior decorator, or 
even a layman, can apply the stain 
satisfactorily if instructions are fol- 
lowed. 

Resists Rot, and DoesntShrin\ 

For contact with the ground 
as mudsills and underpinning, 
or for exposure to the weather 
as shingles, siding, exterior 
trim, porch columns and floor- 
ing, porch rails, etc., there is no 
wood as durable as Redwood. 

When properly dried California 
Redwood does not shrink, warp, or 
swell. It is not affected by variations 
in temperature. Redwood doors "stay 
put"- — they will not shrink, check or 
swell. A Redwood door can always 
be opened and closed without trouble. 
Redwood trim and panels do not 
shrink and expose unsightly edges. 



Redwood Shingles and Sha\es 

Redwood shingles or shakes as a roof 
or side wall covering give long life 
and fire protection. . 

No other shingle, or substitute roof 
covering gives the ideal combination 
of rot resistance and fire retardance, 
with the additional merit of being 
rust proof and free from tar, gum or 
any other substance to melt in the 
sun and fill gutters, water pipes or 
drains. 

Always lay Redwood shingles 
or shakes with zinc-coated cut 
iron nails. This will prolong the 
life of your roof many years. 
The ordinary steel shingle nail 
will rust out while the shingle 
itself is still in first-class con- 
dition. A Redwood shingled 
roof, laid with the right kind of 
nails, will give satisfactory ser- 
vice from 30 to 50 years. 

The Redwood shake is a 36-inch 
long shingle, 6 inches wide, and %■ of 
an inch uniform thickness. For best 







■inother design of Redwood shakes for • wol 



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REDWOOD 







mbination of R> od and plaster 



service on roofs, one-third to one- 
quarter pitch, they may be laid 24 
inches to the weather, which means 
an overlap of 12 inches. When the 
roof is more than quarter pitch, a 6- 
inch overlap, which gives a 30-inch 
weather exposure, will suffice, al- 



though a 12-inch overlap is recom- 
mended. There is no set rule for 
laying shakes to the weather, and the 
overlap can be varied to suit local 
conditions. 

The Redwood shake, which may 
be either split or sawn, is a typical 




tic 



'•'- ' 7 1I1. mal I et tuitable las 

n fact, f .ill < .r; v 



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California covering, and ideal for 
everything from bungalow to barn. 
Both shakes and shingles are used ex- 
tensively for side walls because of 
the artistic effects produced, as well 
as being a splendid weatherproof 

covering. 

The Redwood shingle is sufficiently 

elastic to shape it in a reverse curve, 
if desired. This is done by soaking it 
in hot creosote before laying. In this 
way shingles can be bent around a 
curve (see photograph of the Zug 
home). In addition to giving it pli- 
ancy, the shingles can be laid true to 
the form desired, with assurance that 
they will bold their shape and the 
design of the roof indefinitely. In lay- 
ing roofs this way it is necessary to 
use nails liberallv. 

Many homes in California have 
what are known as "thatched" roofs. 
This is a raised effect produced by 
increasing the number 
shingles. They are laid 
thick in the "thatch," 
the height desired. 



of la vers of 

from 3 to 8 

according to 



You can buy Redwood shingles in 
two grades, No. i Clear and *A*. 
The former is a carefully selected 
vertical grain shingle, free from all 
defects, and is used invariably on 
coverings where service demands 
first consideration. The latter is a 10- 
inch clear butt shingle, "slash" grain 
being no defect, and it is recom- 
mended for side walls rather than 
for roofing. 

In 1893 Redwood shingles were 
taken from the roof of General U. S. 
Grant's headquarters, at Fort Hum- 
boldt, California, where they had 
been for 40 years. The wood was ab- 
solutelv sound and without a trace of 
rot, although the shingles were worn 
thin by wind-driven sand. 

A typical example of Redwood 
shingle service is found in the follow- 
ing letter from A. Cottrell, Eureka, 
Cal.: 

"In the winter of 1870 I 
shingled my house at Eureka 
with Redwood shingles. They 
were first painted about the year 




ng use of Reduood boards for sheathing 



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lore fi ntious Ktiiwood con.iir 



1X80, and again about 1895. T° e 
shingles were not removed from 
the mof of the house until Sep- 
tember, 1 9 1 J5 . They were in ser- 
vice 42 years, and, on being taken 
"ff the roof, were found to be in 
in t-class condition." 



Redwood Lath 

Redwood lath have given most 
satisfactory service for many years, 
the fire-retarding property of Red- 
wood giving lath of this material a 
decided advantage over the ordinary 




. 1 charming R 






ier Cah a hills 



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Exquisite decorative possibilities of sand-bla d Redwood. Main entran Lancaster Hall Apart- 

»i. s, San Fra> o. Rousseau Sr Rousseau, arch ts 



kinds. For best results the rough coat 
of plaster should be allowed to dry 
thoroughly before applying the finish 
coat. 



Sand- Blasting 



Sand-blasting is not a new experi- 
ment on wood, but the texture and 
grain of Redwood make it possible to 
apply it with exquisite results. 

Sand-blasting is done by using a 
sharp sand and cutting through 
metal stenc 

Almost any figure can be produced 
by the skillful handling of the sand- 
iasting tool. 

The absence of pitch and wide 
hard grain, and the close rings in the 
Redwood impart a remarkably beau- 
tiful effect. The most satisfactory 

sand-blasting work is done in verti- 



cal grain pieces. The wood must be 
thoroughly dry to insure the best re- 
sults. 

Sand-blasted Redwood, combined 
with stain by which any color tone 
desired may be achieved, makes a 
remarkably beautiful and artistic 
combination in a decorative way that 
is especially suitable for hotels, 
apartment houses, public buildings, 
as well as in the modest home, for 
this is not an expensive treatment. 

Mill Wor\ 

The texture of Redwood make^ il 
splendid wood for mill work of all 
kinds. From a manufacturing stand- 
point it can be handled more ecu 
nomicallv and works with less waste 
than almost any other wood. 

It is manufactured into all kind 



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plena d exampL i Redwood shakes } hin ■»• >■- ing 

I ■! ! / . O. 1 ris( t . 1 n 

i o. Ward & Blolnnc. architects 



of general mill work, such as frames 
•r doors and windows, mouldings, 
columns for interior and exterior, 
n« t-ls, balusters, rails, spindles, 
pickets, battens, trim and specialty 
roducts. Many are built up on the 
linderman machine, with its dove- 
tail glued joint — a joint that Red- 
wood makes perfectly. 

Redwood mill work is preferable, 
from a consumer's standpoint, be- 
ui e of the wide range of possibil- 
ity in connection with its finish. It 
can be waxed in the natural; it can 
be stained to any color desired, or it 
i an be painted or enameled. The nat- 
ural surface of Redwood is an excel- 
lent base for white enamel because 
it can be sanded to a smooth surface 
that produces a glassy finish. 

The individual Redwood lumber 
companies have elaborate catalogues 
on the different standard planing 



mill products, which will be sent on 
request by those mills. 

Mantels 

As Redwood can be worked readily 
to beautiful decorative effects and 
has a high resistance to fire, some of 
the most beautiful mantels in the 
Western country are made of Red- 
wood. 

Redwood mantels always hold 
their joints, and decorative work, 
whether carving, sand - blasted or 
merely high polish, can be applied to 
Redwood easily and in a thoroughly 
satisfactory manner. The natural 
surface of Redwood is such that it 
takes and holds glue with a tight 
grip, and it can be depended upon to 
hold its shape. 

Its resistance to rot insures a long 
life which applies as much to damp- 



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Interior of the Harrison residence, St. Fratit . Son Francisco, showing Redwoc 

finished in white < mel. Hard & Blohtne, architects 



ness that may get in behind the man- 
tel in the brick work as it does to dry 
rot. 

Pergolas 

The pergola — the garden shade and 
adornment of ancient Greece and 



Rome — is fast growing in favor for 
its utility and decorative effect on the 
lawn. The pergola is the final artistic 
touch to the home. 

Like the sleeping porch, the pergo- 
la, because of its being outdoors, 
should be built entirely of Redwood 




Dining room of t c o; edwood." I he ch. <ty of >d for int. or finish 

learly dc»i rated in t, <tnga> it the San Ft \ 



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-*■ -, *-'*.«* 







// Home i ' at the Panama-Pacific Inter nati il Exposi n I rav 0,1915. Tl, 

bungalow built thi ' r>f California Redxvood. L< tian W iillgardt, architect 



of Redwood columns, girders, 
flooring, rafters and lattice. Then you 
will have no rot due to contact with 
the ground or exposure to weather. 

Redwood columns are built of 
staves properly dried, and there is no 
shrink, warp, or swell to throw them 
out of alignment. Redwood's perfect 
adaptability to paint also contributes 
to the reasons why it is the best wood 
for a pergola. 

Sleeping Porches 

Modern medical science recommends 
out door sleeping for sturdy bodies 
and the joy of healthful living. 

The sleeping porch, therefore, has 
come into vogue. Thousands are be- 
ing built on homes throughout the 
country every day. 

Redwood should be used in build- 
ing the sleeping-porch because of its 
splendid weathering qualities — in 
fact, the nature of the wood is per- 
fectly adapted to this usage. 



A sleeping porch is an economy in 
the reduction of doctor bills, and a 
Redwood sleeping porch is an actual 
saving in the long run. It should be 
built entirely of Redwood. 

The Home of Redwood 

"The Home of Redwood" was a 
magnificent Redwood bungalow at 
the Panama-Pacific International 
Exposition, in San Francisco, in 

I 9 I 5- 

The foundation, underpinning, 
floor joists, and frame are all built 
of Merchantable Redwood. 

The entire building is sheathed 
inside and out, with surfaced <»ne- 
inch Construction Redwood, build- 
ing paper being put next to the 
sheathing and immediately under- 
neath the exterior and interior 
finish. 

The roof is covered with Sawn 
Redwood Shakes dipped in shingle 
stain before laying. 



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The sides are covered with a com- 
bination of Sawn Redwood Shakes 
and a special pattern of Clear Dry 
Redwood Sidin 

The bathrooms, kitchen, pantry, 
and servants' room are finished in 
select Dry Tongue-and-Groove Red- 
wood. 

The other rooms are finished in 
Clear Dry Redwood Panels, as 
shown in the accompanying photo- 
graph. 

This bungalow was awarded the 
Grand Prize by the Exposition Com- 
missioners, which is the highest pos- 
sible recognition that the Exposition 
could bestow. 

After the close of the fair the 
bungalow was sold for $4,000 ( the 
highest price paid for any of fair 
buildings ) and it was moved onto a 
float and towed across the Bay of 
San Francisco and it is now one of 
the most beautiful country homes 
near San Rafael. 



Be Sure and Use Redwood 

Do not specify any wood until you 
have thoroughly investigated what 
Redwood means as a home-building 
material. Redwood is not expensive. 
It may be slightly higher than some 
woods, depending upon locality. When 
you build with Redwood you save in 
the long run any increased first cost 
by avoiding the necessity of contin- 
ual patching and repairs. 

California Redwood can be had in 
your locality. Inquire of your local 
retail lumber dealer — he will see that 
your requirements are supplied. 
Should you have difficulty in secur- 
ing Redwood, or specific information 
about it, write us — we are here to 
serve you. 

California Redwood Association 

Exposition Building 
San Francisco, California 




Floor plan of the "Home of Redwooa 



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